Friday, May 22, 2020

Business Law Case Study - 1411 Words

Case Summary: -Bob owns a Jewelry store -Sam operates electronic security equipment store -Bob and Sam are friends -Monday, Bob held a casual conversation with Sam about fitting his store with closed circuit television and the best available electronic locks -Tuesday, Sam sent Bob a Quotation of price Lists of models and List of price -Wednesday, Bob Replied BY POST. Choice of Supreme Model for camera -Posted to old address, Sam received on Saturday and emailed on the same day Will deliver the goods by Monday -Thursday, Bob wanted to cancel the contract, but couldn t reach Sam -Left a voice message, Sam received on Monday Bob does not wish to take and pay for the goods ADVISE in relation to Offer and Acceptance†¦show more content†¦The fact Bob has made his initial offer through post; making it reasonable for Sam to rely on postage to deliver his acceptance. However, Sam has accepted his offer through email. But, is an acceptance through email treated the same as an acceptance by mail? Following the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, Article 15 stated that: -An email is deemed to have been received at a designated email address once it has entered a service provider s email system and would appear in a user s inbox when he logs on to the email account. (StudyGuide Page 8, 9) Essentially, this definition is the equivalent of an acceptance by letter, as the acceptance made through e-mail became effective when it is sent to the Bob s email address. It is irrelevant whether or not Bob has read the letter. Following the above reason, it is possible to conclude that the Postal Rule of Acceptance does apply in this case. Sam s acceptance through e-mail is effective as of Saturday. It is also important to note that, has Bob included in his offer, a term excluding the operation of postal rule, Sam would not be able to accept the offer by email. This is apparent in Holwell Securities v Hughes, where Postal rule did not apply. The offer contained an option that required the Plaintiff to produce a notice in writing to the Defendant. The mail was lost and never delivered toShow MoreRelatedBusiness Law Case Study1437 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Business Law Case Study Module 4 PLAINTIFFS STATEMENT: The Parties – Alex Johnson vs. Bethlehem Ice Solutions    Opening Argument    Those familiar with skiing know that there are risks involved when one chooses to participate in the sport.   Those risks, however, should be associated with self-inflicted harm caused by mistakes that a skier may make and not unforeseen obstacles and dangerous situations.   The injuries sustained by Alex Johnson on the slopes at Bethlehem Ice Solutions (BIS) were notRead MoreBusiness Law Case Study1954 Words   |  8 PagesCase Jonathan, a moneylender makes a loan of $1,000 to Sheba on Sheba’s representation that she is 19 years old. Sheba is in fact 17 years old. She enrolled for diploma course with a private college for $500, spent $200 on a holiday, and the balance of $300 on a mini hi-fi set. She now refuses to pay Jonathan. In this case, we are acting for Jonathan (plaintiff). Jonathan sues Sheba (defendant) because of free consent and capacity. Free consent that we talk is about misrepresentation whereas capacityRead MoreBusiness Law Case Study2352 Words   |  10 PagesLegal Issues in Management Final Case Study Christine Stout Southern Oregon University Business law – case study The case study of John and Stacey has so many complicated elements that apparently all the stakeholders involved apart from the two mentioned could sue or be sued against. This paper assumes that this is the scenario for this paper. The characters involved are John and Stacy, a restaurant owner, the owner of a townhouse, the owner of the mink on which John tripped and subsequentlyRead MoreBusiness Law Case Study2067 Words   |  9 PagesBusiness Law Case Study In the case presented, Biff Smith, the Chief of Police of the local department ordered a set of bicycles off of a local storeowner, Dirk Right. This was no simple order though, in fact Biff intended on starting a bike patrol unit within the local department. Biff went to Dirks Bicycle shop to place an order. The order was for five mountain bikes to be used for patrol so they had to be custom made in order to sport the police decals. Biff was very familiar with the SchwinnRead MoreBusiness Law: A Case Study1531 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Law In business law, there are a number of procedures that are used in settling disputes. For cases, under $5,000.00, small claims court is utilized as a way to effectively litigate potential issues and come to a solution in a cost effective manner. This is when there are no attorneys present. Instead, each party will present their side of the story to the judge. They will bring forward their own witnesses and evidence to support their case. (Warner, 2012) To fully understand how it worksRead MoreBusiness Law Case Studies1035 Words   |  5 Pagesoriginal contract was agreed upon does not equate to fresh consideration. As addressed in Roscorla v Thomas, assurance was given after the contract was agreed upon and therefore, the plaintiff was unsuccessful in court. The same would apply to Bonnie’s case. Problem 3 a) Could both Michael and David sue Yvette for breach of contract when a contract existed only between Michael and Yvette, and if both contracting parties provided consideration? b) The rules that only a promisee can sue on a contractRead MoreBusiness Law Case Study1259 Words   |  6 Pages Case Study Case 1 A Sydney tramway passenger was injured in a collision with another tram, which occurred after the driver collapsed at the controls. The plaintiff argued that the collision could have been avoided if the tramway authority had fitted the tram with a system known as ‘dead man’s handle’, a system in use on Sydney’s trains. This would have stopped the tram and avoided the accident. The device had been rejected by the tramway authorities because it was felt that it could cause driversRead MoreCase Study : Business Law Case1557 Words   |  7 PagesBusiness Law Case 1: Kate is the owner of a successful business, selling women’s shoes. Her business is expanding fast and she wants to upgrade her business structure to a more appropriate one. What would be your recommendation to Kate and why? What are the factors that influence you with this advice? Solution/Advice 1 Choosing a Corporation/Company Structure - the business structure of a company/ corporation is highly recommended, it has the flexibility to gain more capital, or credit capabilityRead MoreBusiness Law - Case Study1905 Words   |  8 PagesTimber Yard. He made known to Frank, the sole proprietor, the purpose and requirement of the materials and placed an order. John signed a standard form contract and paid a deposit. Two months later, problems arose which caused John to delay his business. John incurred financial losses. B. IDENTIFYING THE ISSUES 1.0 CONTRACT BETWEEN JOHN FRANK. It is obvious that there is a contract for the sales of goods between Frank and John. Therefore, terms implied by statute into the sales ofRead MoreBusiness Law - Case Study Assessment1310 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Law --- Case Study Assessment Question 1: A.Register an Australian company through a number of business service providers who use software that deals directly with ASIC. Firstly, search business directories or the internet for ‘shelf company services’ or ‘Australian company registration’. Because these providers can also offer full company secretarial services covering registers, consents and share certificates. At the same time, we can complete the Application for registration as an Australian

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Language Development of Deaf Infants and Children Essay

Language Development of Deaf Infants and Children My essay topic is the language development of deaf infants and children. In my opinion, this is an important topic to discuss, due to the lack of public knowledge concerning the deaf population. Through this essay, I wish to present how a child is diagnosed as having a hearing loss (including early warning signs), options that parents have for their children once diagnosed (specifically in relation to education of language), common speech teaching methods used today, typical language development for these children, and some emotional, social, and mental difficulties faced by the deaf child and the child’s family that have an immense effect on the child’s education. When most people†¦show more content†¦I want to state that, foremost, it is not my intent to advocate the teaching of speech and the English language to deaf children, nor is it my intent to advocate teaching a visual language. The decision of language for a deaf child is an extremely complicated and personal one, one that can only be made by the child’s family. This site also has limited space, and therefore does not include several facets of a deaf child’s development. This site is strictly limited to the development of language, whether it be visual or oral, and the controversies and research related to it. I also want to briefly point out the range of hearing impairments that a child can have. Even though a child may not be classified as â€Å"profoundly impaired† or deaf, this does not mean that the child will not face several of the obstacles a deaf child does. Therefore, even though this site is taken from a â€Å"worse case scenario† perspective, many of the methods and therapy situations may apply to those with less severe impairments. As a closing thought, please keep in mind the respect for â€Å"difference† that we all MUST have in this country. Deaf or hearing-impaired individuals are not necessarily â€Å"disabled†, but rather â€Å"different†. Although this difference may seem extremely complicated to the hearing world, it is one that is often embraced in the deaf world. Let us respect all people and their right to knowledge! Hopefully,Show MoreRelatedPre Lingual Hearing Loss, Or Deafness1420 Words   |  6 PagesPre lingual hearing loss, or deafness — â€Å"that is, severe to profound hearing impairment that prevents infants and young children from acquiring normally the capacity for intelligible speech† — affects tens of thousands of Americans (Murray, 1997). Accordingly, for this population of infants who were born severely or profoundly deaf and young children who became severely or profoundly deaf prior to developing any sort of communication, it is imperative t hat the child’s appointed professionals andRead MoreDeaf Studies And Deaf Education1736 Words   |  7 PagesMany of the cues used by the children or to categorize their reactions were auditory ones. If a parent called the child’s name, the child would often stop and look back to the mother. If the child heard a loud sound, they would look back to the mother for reassurance. Again, we see studies that indicate that the hearing capabilities of the child are valuable at least in examining the child’s responses, if not in creating the stimuli that the child is responding to in the first place. In theirRead MoreMaking Decisions For Children Is Difficult1511 Words   |  7 PagesMaking decisions for children is difficult; however, making decisions becomes even more complicated when the child has a hearing loss. Most parents know very little about hearing loss and the implications for their child. Before parents even have time to adjust to their child having a hearing loss, decisions need to be made and have no idea what is best for the child. Parents need to realize that just as all children are different, no one style of communication or educational assignment is rightRead MoreInnateness of Children’s Language Acquisition1371 Words   |  6 PagesThe subtlety of language acquisition has been the most fundamental question in the study of linguistics and human development. From Bow-wow Theory to Yo-He-Ho Theory, major theories on the origins and learnability of language have emerged in mid-20th century and heavily debated ever since. Among them, the idea of univer sal grammar in which is usually credited to linguist Noam Chomsky, remains the most notable and controversial theory over time. He introduced and developed the theory from 1950s toRead MoreThe subtlety of language acquisition has been the most fundamental question in the study of1500 Words   |  6 PagesThe subtlety of language acquisition has been the most fundamental question in the study of linguistics and human development. From Bow-wow Theory to Yo-He-Ho Theory, the major theories on language origins and learnability emerged at mid-20th century and has been heavily debated ever since. Among them, the idea of universal grammar in which is usually credited to linguist Noam Chomsky, remains the most notable and controversial theory over time. He introduced and developed the t heory from 1950sRead MoreThe Acquisition of Spoken Language in Deaf Children1839 Words   |  7 Pagesability to use language to communicate with the world around us. The capability to produce novel and co mplex sentences is a skill that every child learns if the conditions allow him or her to do so. What is most amazing about this is that children gain this capability in such a short amount of time. Within 5 years of life humans use the linguistic input of the world around them to produce novel ideas and thoughts. Regardless of where or how one lives, the process of acquiring language is often predictableRead MoreChilds Real Time Referential Processing Development1480 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Language processing has been a largely studied area of research over the past _ years. More recently, studies have looked into real-time referential processing abilities in children in order to understand how processing works as well as what contributes to levels of efficiency. Some factors that effect proficiency of this ability includes exposure to infant-directed speech, onset of exposure to first language, socioeconomic status, as well as various individual differences such as language impairmentsRead MoreLanguage Of Routines And Joint Attention Essay1107 Words   |  5 Pagesprovided to infants and toddlers who are at risk for, or showing signs of developmental delays† (Coleman, 1993). The intervention is individualized for each child and family and their specific needs. Thus, when the service providers work with the families, they can â€Å"create optimal environments for language learning† (Moeller, et. al., 2013). Research shows that language of routines and jo int attention are two successful evidence based practices families and interventionist can use with children who areRead MoreA Critical Evaluation Of Children Early Speech Perception And Implicated The `` Critical Period ``2005 Words   |  9 PagesIntroduction Infants are linguistic genius. Kuhl (2004, 2009) discovered that babies are born with the ability to make all the discrimination by languages of the world. Infants use computational strategies and statistically calculate the sound of their caregiver talking to discover all the phonemes and words. But babies lose the ability to hear those differences of other nonnative languages. Kuhl, Conboy, Padden, Nelson and Pruitt (2005) proposed the children early speech perception and implicatedRead MoreThe Effects Of A Deaf Child Cause Stress Within The Family887 Words   |  4 Pagescome together to conceive a child, their natural assumption is the child will also be a hearing person. However, that is not always the case. Over 90% of deaf children are born to hearing parents. The initial discovery of a deaf child causes stress within the family, because they are ignorant of Deaf culture within the US and also the abilities of deaf people. Nevertheless, despite the initial shock of the childà ¢â‚¬â„¢s inability to hear they are still able to bond together as a family and maintain a healthy

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Objective of Education Is Learning Free Essays

string(169) " the explainers will find it sticking in their minds a lot longer, because they struggled to gain an understanding in the first place in a form clear enough to explain\." ‘The Objective of Education Is Learning’ *’The Objective of Education Is Learning, Not Teaching’* *In their book,** *Turning Learning Right Side Up: Putting Education Back on Track*, authors Russell L. Ackoff and Daniel Greenberg point out that today’s education system is seriously flawed — it focuses on teaching rather than learning. â€Å"Why should children — or adults — be asked to do something computers and related equipment can do much better than they can? † the authors ask in the following excerpt from the book. We will write a custom essay sample on Objective of Education Is Learning or any similar topic only for you Order Now â€Å"Why doesn’t education focus on what humans can do better than the machines and instruments they create? * â€Å"Education is an admirable thing, but it is well to remember from time to time that nothing that is worth learning can be taught. † — Oscar Wilde Traditional education focuses on teaching, not learning. It incorrectly assumes that for every ounce of teaching there is an ounce of learning by those who are taught. However, most of what we learn before, during, and after attending schools is learned without its being taught to us. A child learns such fundamental things as how to walk, talk, eat, dress, and so on without being taught these things. But are there intrinsic barriers to learning? Adults learn most of what they use at work or at leisure while at work or leisure. Most of what is taught in classroom settings is forgotten, and much or what is remembered is irrelevant. In most schools, memorization is mistaken for learning. Most of what is remembered is remembered only for a short time, but then is quickly forgotten. (How many remember how to take a square root or ever have a need to? ) Furthermore, even young children are aware of the fact that most of what is expected of them in school can better be done by computers, recording machines, cameras, and so on. They are treated as poor surrogates ; for such machines and instruments. Why should children — or adults, for that matter — be asked to do something computers and related equipment can do much better than they can? Why doesn’t education focus on what humans can do better than the machines and instruments they create? When those who have taught others are asked who in the classes learned most, virtually all of them say, â€Å"The teacher. † It is apparent to those who have taught that teaching is a better way to learn than being taught. Teaching enables the teacher to discover what one thinks about the subject being taught. Schools are upside down: Students should be teaching and faculty learning. After lecturing to undergraduates at a major university, I was accosted by a student who had attended the lecture. After some complimentary remarks, he asked, â€Å"How long ago did you teach your first class? † I responded, â€Å"In September of 1941. † â€Å"Wow! † The student said. â€Å"You mean to say you have been teaching for more than 60 years? † â€Å"Yes. † â€Å"When did you last teach a course in a subject that existed when you were a student? † This difficult question required some thought. After a pause, I said, â€Å"September of 1951. â€Å"Wow! You mean to say that everything you have taught in more than 50 years was not taught *to* you; you had to learn on your own? † â€Å"Right. † â€Å"You must be a pretty good learner. † I modestly agreed. The student then said, â€Å"What a shame you’re not that good a teacher. † The student had it right; what most faculty members are good at, if anything, is learning rather than teaching. Recall that in the one-room schoolhouse, students taught students. The teacher served as a guide and a resource but not as one who force-fed content into students’ minds. *Ways of Learning* There are many different ways of learning; teaching is only one of them. We learn a great deal on our own, in independent study or play. We learn a great deal interacting with others informally — sharing what we are learning with others and vice versa. We learn a great deal by doing, through trial and error. Long before there were schools as we know them, there was apprenticeship — learning how to do something by trying it under the guidance of one who knows how. For example, one can learn more architecture by having to design and build one’s own house than by taking any number of courses on the subject. When physicians are asked whether they leaned more in classes or during their internship, without exception they answer, â€Å"Internship. † In the educational process, students should be offered a wide variety of ways to learn, among which they could choose or with which they could experiment. They do not have to learn different things the same way. They should learn at a very early stage of â€Å"schooling† that learning how to learn is largely their responsibility — with the help they seek but that is not imposed on them. The objective of education is learning, not teaching. There are two ways that teaching is a powerful tool of learning. Let’s abandon for the moment the loaded word teaching, which is unfortunately all too closely linked to the notion of â€Å"talking at† or â€Å"lecturing,† and use instead the rather awkward phrase explaining something to someone else who wants to find out about it. One aspect of explaining something is getting yourself up to snuff on whatever it is that you are trying to explain. I can’t very well explain to you how Newton accounted for planetary motion if ; I haven’t boned up on my Newtonian mechanics first. This is a problem we all face all the time, when we are expected to explain something. (Wife asks, â€Å"How do we get to Valley Forge from home? † And husband, who does not want to admit he has no idea at all, excuses himself to go to the bathroom; he quickly Googles Mapquest to find out. ) This is one sense in which the one who explains learns the most, because the person to whom the explanation is made can afford to forget the explanation promptly in most cases; but the explainers will find it sticking in their minds a lot longer, because they struggled to gain an understanding in the first place in a form clear enough to explain. You read "Objective of Education Is Learning" in category "Essay examples" The second aspect of explaining something that leaves the explainer more enriched, and with a much deeper understanding of the subject, is this: To satisfy the person being addressed, to the point where that person can nod his head and say, â€Å"Ah, yes, now I understand! † explainers must not only get the matter to fit comfortably into their own worldview, into their own personal frame of reference for understanding the world around them, they also have to figure out how to link their frame of reference to the world view of the person receiving the explanation, so that the explanation can make sense to that person, too. This involves an intense effort on the part of the explainer to get into the other person’s mind, so to speak, and that exercise is at the heart of learning in general. For, by practicing repeatedly how to create links between my mind and another’s, I am reaching the very core of the art of learning from the ambient culture. Without that skill, I can only learn from direct experience; with that skill, I can learn from the experience of the whole world. Thus, whenever I struggle to explain something to someone else, and succeed in doing so, I am advancing my ability to learn from others, too. Learning through Explanation* This aspect of learning through explanation has been overlooked by most commentators. And that is a shame, because both aspects of learning are what makes the age mixing that takes place in the world at large such a valuable educational tool. Younger kids are always seeking answers from older kids –sometimes just slightly older kids (the seven-y ear old tapping the presumed life wisdom of the so-much-more-experienced nine year old), often much older kids. The older kids love it, and their abilities are exercised mightily in these interactions. They have to figure out what it is that they understand about the question being raised, and they have to figure out how to make their understanding comprehensible to the younger kids. The same process occurs over and over again in the world at large; this is why it is so important to keep communities multi-aged, and why it is so destructive to learning, and to the development of culture in general, to segregate certain ages (children, old people) from others. What went on in the one-room schoolhouse is much like what I have been talking about. In fact, I am not sure that the adult teacher in the one-room schoolhouse was always viewed as the best authority on any given subject! Long ago, I had an experience that illustrates that point perfectly. When our oldest son was eight years old, he hung around (and virtually worshiped) a very brilliant 13-year-old named Ernie, who loved science. Our son was curious about everything in the world. One day he asked me to explain some physical phenomenon that lay within the realm of what we have come to call â€Å"physics†; being a former professor of physics, I was considered a reasonable person to ask. So, I gave him an answer — the â€Å"right† answer, the one he would have found in books. He was greatly annoyed. â€Å"That’s not right! † he shouted, and when I expressed surprise at his response, and asked him why he would say so, his answer was immediate: â€Å"Ernie said so and so, which is totally different, and Ernie knows. It was an enlightening and delightful experience for me. It was clear that his faith in Ernie had been developed over a long time, from long experience with Ernie’s unfailing ability to build a bridge between their minds — perhaps more successfully, at least in certain areas, than I had been. One might wonder how on earth learning came to be seen primarily a result of teaching. Until quite recently, t he world’s great teachers were understood to be people who had something fresh to say about something to people who were interested in hearing their message. Moses, Socrates, Aristotle, Jesus — these were people who had original insights, and people came from far and wide to find out what those insights were. One can see most clearly in Plato’s dialogues that people did not come to Socrates to â€Å"learn philosophy,† but rather to hear Socrates’ version of philosophy (and his wicked and witty attacks on other people’s versions), just as they went to other philosophers to hear (and learn) their versions. In other words, teaching was understood as public exposure of an individual’s perspective, which anyone could take or leave, depending on whether they cared about it. No one in his right mind thought that the only way you could become a philosopher was by taking a course from one of those guys. On the contrary, you were expected to come up with your own original worldview if you aspired to the title of philosopher. This was true of any and every aspect of knowledge; you figured out how to learn it, and you exposed yourself to people who were willing to make their understanding public if you thought it could be a worthwhile part of your endeavor. That is the basis for the formation of universities in the Middle Ages — places where thinkers were willing to spend their time making their thoughts public. The only ones who got to stay were the ones whom other people (â€Å"students†) found relevant enough to their own personal quests to make listening to them worthwhile. By the way, this attitude toward teaching has not disappeared. When quantum theory was being developed in the second quarter of the twentieth century, aspiring atomic physicists traveled to the various places where different theorists were developing their thoughts, often in radically different directions. Students traveled to Bohr’s institute to find out how he viewed quantum theory, then to Heisenberg, to Einstein, to Schrodinger, to Dirac, and so on. What was true of physics was equally true of art, architecture†¦ you name it. It is still true today. One does not go to Pei to learn â€Å"architecture†; one goes to learn how he does it — that is, to see him â€Å"teach† by telling and showing you his approach. Schools should enable people to go where they want to go, not where others want them to. *Malaise of Mass Education* The trouble began when mass education was introduced. It was necessary To decide what skills and knowledge everyone has to have to be a productive citizen of a developed country in the industrial age – To make sure the way this information is defined and standardized, to fit into the standardization required by the industrial culture – To develop the means of describing and communicating the standardized information (textbooks, curricula) – To train people to comprehend the standardized material and master the means of transmitting it (teacher training, pedagogy) – To create places where the trainees (children) and the trainers (unfortunately called teachers, which gives them a status they do not deserve) can meet — so-called schools (again a term stolen from a much different milieu, endowing these new institutions with a dignity they also do not deserve) – And, to provide the coercive backing necessary to carry out this major cultural and social upheaval In keeping with all historic attempts to revolutionize the social order, The elite leaders who formulated the strategy, and those who implemented it, perverted the language, using terms that had attracted a great deal of respect in new ways that turned their meanings upside down, but helped make the new order palatable to a public that didn’t quite catch on. Every word — *teacher, student, school, disc ipline,* and so on — took on meanings diametrically opposed to what they had originally meant. Consider this one example from my recent experience. I attended a conference of school counselors, where the latest ideas in the realm of student counseling were being presented. I went to a session on the development of self-discipline and responsibility, wondering what these concepts mean to people embedded in traditional schooling. To me, self-discipline means the ability to pursue one’s goals without outside coercion; responsibility means taking appropriate action on one’s own initiative, without being goaded by others. To the people presenting the session, both concepts had to do solely with the child’s ability to do his or her assigned class work. They explained that a guidance counselor’s proper function was to get students to understand that responsible behavior meant doing their homework in a timely and effective manner, as prescribed, and self-discipline meant the determination to get that homework done. George Orwell was winking in the back of the room. Today, there are two worlds that use the word *education* with opposite meanings: one world consists of the schools and colleges (and even graduate schools) of our education complex, in which standardization prevails. In that world, an industrial training mega-structure strives to turn out identical replicas of a product called â€Å"people educated for the twenty-first century†; the second is the world of information, knowledge, and wisdom, in which the real population of the world resides when not incarcerated in schools. In that world, learning takes place like it always did, and teaching consists of imparting one’s wisdom, among other things, to voluntary listeners. 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Monday, April 27, 2020

Place Attachment free essay sample

Social and Physical factors Influencing Place Attachment Lisa Waxman, Ph. D. , Florida State University (co-authored by Marco Marin) aBstract This study explored the characteristics that encourage gathering behavior and contribute to place attachment in selected coffee shops in the context of literature suggesting social gathering places contribute to social capital. These gathering places, with the potential to enhance community in this manner, have been called third places. The study was qualitative in nature and included the research techniques of visual documentation, observation and behavioral mapping, interview, and survey. A transactional approach to this study was chosen to better understand the meaning of the person-environment relationship. Each coffee shop was observed for twenty-five hours for a total of seventy-five hours. Eighteen interviews were conducted and surveys were collected from 94 patrons to reveal patron attitudes toward the physical and social aspects of the coffee shop as well as their feelings regarding the community in which they live. We will write a custom essay sample on Place Attachment or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The key findings regarding the physical characteristics showed the top five design considerations included: cleanliness, appealing aroma, adequate lighting, comfortable furniture, and a view to the outside. A number of themes emerged related to people, their activities, and their feelings and attitudes regarding the coffee shop. Each coffee shop was found to have a unique social climate and culture related to sense of belonging, territoriality and ownership, productivity and personal growth, opportunity for socialization, support and networking, and sense of community. Regarding feelings of community, survey findings from coffee shops patrons showed a positive correlation between length of patronage and their sense of attachment to their community. introDuction Researchers Unger and Wandersman (1985) discussed the importance of the community to the human social, emotional, and cognitive experiences. Rivlin (1987) explained that the connections to community create a bond between people and place in which people and place are molded into a whole. Although the value of place and community seems clear, there has been much social commentary regarding the decreasing ability of people to connect with their communities and the people who live among them (fleming and Von Tscharner, 1987; Lippard, 1997; Putnam, 2000: Stumpf, 1998). In Bowling Alone, which addressed the collapse and revival of American community, Putnam (2000) discussed the increasing disconnect from family, friends, neighbors, and social structure. He reviewed the concept of social capital, which he defined as â€Å"the connections among individuals—social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them† (p. 19). Putnam expressed concern that the decrease in community activity and community sharing results in the shrinking of social capital which threatens our civic and personal health. In The Great Good Place, author Ray Oldenburg (1999) emphasized the importance of neighborhood gathering places in enhancing the lives of people. Oldenburg defined these gathering places as third places, and further explained that these places are not home or work, but the places that help get people through the day. Oldenburg describes the third place as â€Å"a generic designation for a great variety of public places that host the regular, voluntary, informal, and happily anticipated gatherings of individuals beyond the realms of home and work† (p. 16). Third places provide a place to connect with the people in communities as well as a place to exchange ideas and news. However, Oldenburg expressed concern that many third places are disappearing, and Journal of InterIor DesIgn 35 Volume 31 Number 3 2006 the cOffee shOp: sOciaL and physicaL factOrs infLuencing pLace attachment Waxman The experience of place is unique to each individual and is directly related to his or her lived experiences. Attachment to place is a set of feelings that emotionally binds people to a particular place. that in the United States, the third place has become a distant third. He raised the question of how this decrease in the availability of community gathering places impacts the lives of people. What are the consequences when communities lack places to gather with neighbors, friends, and to mingle with the familiar strangers who hold the potential for new friendships, relationships, and ultimately the growth of the social capital in a community? Oldenburg (1999) explained that most third places draw their identity from the beverages they serve. Historically, coffee houses have provided places for social intercourse and conversation, as well as political debate (Pendergrast, 1999). They have also served as places where people could gather, speak freely, and mingle with others from their communities (Oldenburg, 1999). for many people, the coffee shop serves as a third place, a place to regularly interact with fellow community members. In the United States, from 2000 to 2004, fast food chains grew at a rate of 2% per year, while coffee shop chains grew more than 10% annually (Holmes, 2004). In 2004, forty-two percent of adults in the United States aged 18-34 purchased their coffee at a coffee shop with 48% consuming the beverage on the premises. These numbers seem to indicate that the coffee shop is about more than just coffee; perhaps the place in which it is consumed has significance in itself. Scholars studying place attachment report that attachment to place comes about through a set of related phenomenon rather than a singular phenomenon (Low Altman, 1992). In addition, a number of scholars have viewed the concept of place attachment in a transactional framework involving psychological, social, and temporal experiences (Stokols Shumaker, 1981; Brown and Perkins, 1992; Altman Rogoff, 1987). A definition by Brown and Perkins (1992) states, â€Å"Place attachment involves positively experienced bonds, sometimes occurring without awareness, that are developed over time from the behavioral, affective, and cognitive ties between individuals and/or groups and their sociophysical environment† (p. 284). This research on place and place attachment points to the value of place in the lives of people. This paper will expand on this research by exploring the variables that contribute to gathering behavior and place attachment in third places, specifically coffee shops. The sites chosen for study included three selected coffee shops in a mid-size city in the southeastern United States. The purpose of this study was to see what qualities, both physical and social, encourage people to gather in those coffee shops and develop an attachment to those places. literature review Due to the availability of literature on the social/psychological studies of place, and a lack of literature on the design of social gathering places, this review of literature will focus primarily on studies of place and place attachment. The experience of place is unique to each individual and is directly related to his or her lived experiences. Attachment to place is a set of feelings that emotionally binds people to a particular place. â€Å"Places root us—to the earth, to our own history and memories, to our families and larger community† (Cooper-Marcus frances, 1998, p. xi). Understanding the concept of place provides an important framework for understanding the way people form relationships with places. When relationships develop between people and places, the result is often a feeling of place attachment. Low (1992) stated, â€Å"Place attachment is the symbolic relationship formed by people giving culturally shared emotional/affective meanings to a particular space or piece of land that provides the basis for the individual’s and group’s understanding of and relation to the environment† (p. 165). Proshansky, fabian, and Kaminoff (1983) described place attachment as involving the interplay of emotions, knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors in reference to a place. Place attachment refers to the idea that people develop special bonds with certain settings that hold deep meaning to the individual (Low Altman, 1992). The word Volume 31 Number 3 2006 36 Journal of InterIor DesIgn the cOffee shOp: sOciaL and physicaL factOrs infLuencing pLace attachment Waxman Place attachment has the potential to offer predictability in a daily routine, a place to relax from the more formal roles of life, and the opportunity for control in various areas of life (Low Altman, 1992). â€Å"attachment† refers to affect while the word â€Å"place† refers to the â€Å"environmental settings to which people are emotionally and culturally attached† (Low Altman, 1992, p. 5). Affect, emotion, and feeling are central to the concept of place attachment and appear consistently in studies on this topic. Relph (1976) believed that to be inside a place is to belong and identify with it. Tuan (1980) suggested the existence of a state of rootedness in which one’s personality merges with one’s place. He wrote that the primary function of place is to engender a sense of belonging and attachment. Traditional definitions of place attachment view it as an outcome, as feeling of being attached (Tuan, 1974). However, Harris, Brown, and Werner (1996) emphasized place attachment as both the feeling of being attached and the process of becoming attached, which include reasons for the attachment. Attachment to place involves the assessment of the current setting, as well as the assessment of the relative quality of alternative settings (Stokols Shumaker, 1981). Higher quality environmental settings are those that support the goals and activities of the person (Stokols and Shumaker, (1982). Stokols and Shumaker’s (1982) model of place attachment lists neighborhood, physical amenities, individual and household characteristics, and social networks as important components of place attachment.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

The Lowell Mill Girls in the 19th Century

The Lowell Mill Girls in the 19th Century The Lowell Mill Girls were female workers in early 19th century America, young women employed in an innovative system of labor in textile mills centered in Lowell, Massachusetts. The employment of women in a factory was  novel to the point of being revolutionary. And the system of labor in the Lowell mills became widely admired because the young women were housed in an environment which was not only safe but reputed to be culturally advantageous. The young women were encouraged to engage in educational pursuits while not working, and they even contributed articles to a magazine, the Lowell Offering.   The Lowell System of Labor Employed Young Women Francis Cabot Lowell founded the Boston Manufacturing Company, prompted by the increased demand for cloth during the War of 1812. Utilizing the latest technology, he built a factory in Massachusetts which used water power to run machines that processed raw cotton into finished fabric. The factory needed workers, and Lowell wanted to avoid using child labor, which was commonly used in fabric mills in England. The workers did not need to be physically strong, as the work was not strenuous. However, the workers had to be fairly intelligent to master the complicated machinery. The solution was to hire young women. In New England, there were a number of girls who had some education, in that they could read and write. And working in the textile mill seemed like a step up from working on the family farm. Working at a job and earning wages was an innovation in the early decades of the 19th century, when many Americans still worked on family farms or at small family businesses. And for young women at the time, it was considered a great adventure to be able to assert some independence from their families. The company set up boardinghouses to provide safe places for the women employees to live, and also imposed a strict moral code. Instead of it being thought scandalous for women to work in a factory, the mill girls were actually considered respectable. Lowell Became the Center of Industry Francis Cabot Lowell, the founder of the Boston Manufacturing Company, died in 1817. But his colleagues continued the company  and built a larger and improved mill along the Merrimack River in a town which they renamed in Lowells honor. In the 1820s and 1830s, Lowell and its mill girls became fairly famous. In 1834, faced with increased competition in the textile business, the mill cut the workers wages, and the workers responded by forming the Factory Girls Association, an early labor union. The efforts at organized labor were not successful, however. In the late 1830s, the housing rates for the female mill workers were raised, and they attempted to hold a strike, but it did not succeed. They were back on the job within weeks. Mill Girls and Their Cultural Programs Were Famous The mill girls became known for engaging in cultural programs centered around their boardinghouses. The young women tended to read, and discussions of books were a common pursuit. The women also began publishing their own magazine, the Lowell Magazine.  The magazine was published from 1840 to 1845, and sold for six cents a copy. The content poems and autobiographical sketches, which were usually published anonymously, or with the authors identified solely by their initials. The mill owners essentially controlled what appeared in the magazine, so the articles tended to be a positive nature. Yet the magazines very existence was seen as evidence of a positive work environment.   When Charles Dickens, the great Victorian novelist, visited the United States in 1842, he was taken to Lowell to see the factory system. Dickens, who had seen the horrible conditions of British factories up close, was very impressed at the conditions of the mills in Lowell. He was also impressed by the publication issued by the mill workers. The Lowell Offering ceased publication in 1845, when tensions between the workers and the mill owners increased. Over the last year of publication the magazine had published material that was not entirely positive, such as an article which pointed out that loud machinery in the mills could damage a workers hearing. When the magazine promoted the cause of a workday shortened to ten hours, tensions between workers and management became inflamed and the magazine was shut down. Immigration Brought the End of the Lowell System of Labor In the mid-1840s, the Lowell workers organized the Female Labor Reform Association, which tried to bargain for improved wages. But the Lowell System of Labor was essentially undone by increased immigration to the United States. Instead of hiring local New England girls to work in the mills, the factory owners discovered they would hire newly arrived immigrants. The immigrants, many of whom had come from Ireland, fleeing the Great Famine, were content to find any work at all, even for relatively low wages.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Von Versus Aus - Expressing Where You Are From

Von Versus Aus - Expressing Where You Are From Whatever language you may be learning, trying to explain where you are from or where you have been can be very frustrating and is often stated incorrectly in the beginning stages of your language learning. That is because expressing where you are from takes the accurate knowledge of preposition usage and that can differ greatly from your native tongue. For German learners, you have the added disadvantage that prepositions can sound similar between German and English. (von/ from, zu/ to) and you instinctively associate the same patterns and meaning in both languages. Mastering this German grammar hurdle  is really just a matter of retraining your brain and, most importantly, to stop comparing it to English grammar (if your native tongue is English). First things first: What is the difference between aus and von? Strictly speaking: Aus means ‘out of’ Ein Neugeborenes kommt aus dem Mutterleib. - A newborn comes out of the mother’s womb. Aus explains your roots Ich komme aus Spanien. - I come from Spain. Or that you are moving physically ‘out of’ a place Wann kommt sie aus dem Bad? - When are done your bath? Von means ‘from’ Es ist nicht sehr weit von hier bis zum Bahnhof. - It is not too far from here  to the train station. Or when you want to explain the starting point of a physical motion Wann kommst du von der Arbeit zurà ¼ck? - When are getting back from work? Wir kommen gerade vom Spielplatz. - We are returning from the playground. As you can see, the problem, for English native speakers especially,  is that there is usually only one general translation for both of these German pronouns, namely ‘from’. What you need to do is always keep these literal core German meanings at the forefront, while being aware of the following when wanting to express where you are from or have come from: To explain that you are from a certain city or country, be it either you grew up there or were born there, you use aus: Ich komme aus Deutschland. When you want to explain that you have traveled from a certain city or country geographically, you will also use aus, however, you need to add more explanation to convey the correct context: Ich komme aus gerade aus Italien, wo ich meine Familie besucht habe. In English, you have the verbs to distinguish which meaning you are relating (‘am from’ versus come from), in German, it is the context of the sentence that will reveal the meaning. Having said all that, we need to throw a wrench in your learning: Colloquially, Germans will also use von to state where a person has traveled from geographically. Ich komme von Italien. Even so, all of the German grammar books state that the correct pronoun for the above usage is aus. Remember, the von/aus dilemma is confusing for Germans too! Now that you have grumbled over this double standard, boost your morale with this grammatical tidbit: Both pronouns use the dative! That knowledge in itself is a cause for celebration, knowing that you have one less decision to make in your German phrasing. (German grammar can be kind at times.) Here is a good rule of thumb to help you determine whether to use aus or von: The preposition aus is used, when you can answer a wo  (where) question with in. Die Fische kommen aus dem Meer. Where are the fish? / Wo sind die Fische?In the ocean / I m Meer. In other words, the fish are not physically coming out of the ocean. This sentence states where they are from. The preposition von is used when you can answer a wo (where) question with either an, auf, bei, or zu Das Mdchen kommt gerade von ihrer Oma. Where was the girl? Wo war das Mdchen?Sie war bei ihrer Oma. Note: Notice that the word gerade was placed before von ihrer in the above sentence. This adverb  strengthens the phrasal context that the girl was actually physically coming from her grandmother’s. You will often see an adverb or other word that helps define the action in a von sentence: Heidi kommt aus den Bergen.Heidi kommt vom Berg runter. It’s no secret that prepositions are hard in German. Because of their different nuances in meaning, the most important words are actually the words around the prepositions that form the context. Keep this in mind as you learn their subtle differences and remember to not think in your native tongue.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Ernest Rutherford Essay Cont Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Ernest Rutherford Cont - Essay Example In 1971, Earnest continued to make contributions in the field of physics through a series of experiments and would later discover that it was possible to disintegrate nuclei of light elements like nitrogen using energy from alpha particles of radioactive materials. Therefore, Earnest was the first to induce an artificial nuclear reaction, and his idea is the basis for nuclear reactions in the modern world for producing energy and weaponry. He is famous for coining the names alpha, beta, and gamma rays in a bid to classify the various forms of rays since the concept was barely understandable in those days (Nobel Media 1). In this case, the scientist made a significant contribution to electromagnetic radiation. Furthermore, Ernest observed that radioactivity of objects reduced with time (Rutherford 17). Eventually, he came up with the term half-life as the time it takes for the radioactive materials to disintegrate thus the scientist was the one who set the laws governing radioactive decay. In addition, Rutherford is the scientist behind the nuclear model of atoms where he inferred that an atom comprise a nucleus that is surrounded by many orbiting electrons and his conclusion is how modern science view atoms (Weisstein 1). Earnest‘s contribution in nuclear physics has contributed to a great deal in the area of modern physics and chemistry (Weisstein 1). The concept of radioactivity, especially the alpha, beta, and gamma rays is the basis for understanding how solar radiation reaches the earth and the overall effect on atmospheric temperature. Earnest found that gamma rays were of high frequencies and if they reached the earths surface, the temperatures could be high and unbearable for the inhabitants (Rutherford 1). In this case, Earnest made an important contribution for the modern scientists to understand how issues like global warming and